Lung cancer symptoms and new treatment options in 10 questions

lung cancerLung cancer, which ranks first among the causes of death from cancer; It is a type of cancer that can be successfully treated when diagnosed in the early stages. Although the most important cause of lung cancer seems to be smoking, the disease can also be seen in non-smokers. Medical Oncology Specialist Prof. Dr. Gokhan Kandemir, lung cancer He answered 10 questions about the subject in the light of up-to-date information.

1. What is Lung Cancer?

They are malignant tumors that develop as a result of uncontrolled growth and proliferation of abnormal cells in the tissues of one or both lungs.

2. Who Gets Lung Cancer?

Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer in men in the world and in our country. The incidence in women is also increasing. It is the first cause of death from cancer. More people die from lung cancer than those who lost their lives due to colon, breast and prostate cancer combined. The incidence increases with increasing age. For example; While it rarely occurs under the age of 45, it is usually diagnosed between the ages of 50-70.

What are the symptoms of lung cancer? Causes, diagnosis and stages

3. Are There Different Types of Lung Cancer?

This type of cancer is divided into two main groups as “small cell” and “non-small cell lung cancer”. Its growth, spread and treatment differ according to the type of disease. Small cell lung cancer is the type that grows faster and spreads more to other parts of the body and accounts for 20% of all lung cancers. The cause of this ailment is usually smoking. Lung cancer is often; It spreads to the bone, liver, brain and adrenal glands.

4. What are the Risk Factors of Lung Cancer?

The number one cause of lung cancer is smoking, which is responsible for 85% of cases. Lung cancer risk is 20 times higher in smokers of 1 pack a day than non-smokers. Age of onset of smoking, duration of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked affect the development of cancer. Passive smoking, that is, being exposed to cigarette smoke by being in smoking environments, also increases the risk of lung cancer.

Lung cancer treatment: Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy

Genetic transmission, asbestos, radon gas, air pollution are other factors that are held responsible. Some lung diseases such as tuberculosis and radiotherapy to the lungs increase the risk of lung cancer. The presence of high levels of arsenic in drinking water may also increase the risk of lung cancer.

5. Do Non-Smokers Have Lung Cancer?

Lung cancer can also occur in non-smokers. 15% of all lung cancers occur in people who have never smoked.

6. What are the Most Common Symptoms of Lung Cancer?

There may be no symptoms of the disease. Approximately 4/1 of those in the advanced stage have no symptoms. The most common symptoms are; shortness of breath, persistent and progressively worsening cough, bloody sputum, loss of appetite and weakness. Other symptoms include chest pain, wheezing, fever, hoarseness, swelling in the face and neck, shoulder and arm pain, and difficulty in swallowing.

7. How is Lung Cancer Treated?

Lung cancer “surgery”, “radiotherapy”, “chemotherapyThere are 4 types of treatment, namely ” and “targeted therapy”. Treatment; It is determined according to the type of cancer, the size of the tumor, its location, prevalence, and the general condition of the patient. At these stages, computed tomography, PET (Positron Emission Tomography), bone scintigraphyMany tests are done, such as brain MRI. non-small cell lung cancer; It is treated with surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy or their combination. The main treatment for small cell lung cancer is chemotherapy.

What is scintigraphy, what does it do? How to withdraw, what are the harms?

Radiotherapy is also used in conjunction with it. In surgical treatment, a small part of the lung, a lobe, or an entire lung can be removed, depending on the location of the tumor. Administration of cancer drugs; that is, chemotherapy is applied to kill cancer cells in the whole body. If radiotherapy; Radiation therapy can be applied after surgery, sometimes in combination with chemotherapy instead of surgery. Targeted therapy is a treatment that targets cancer genes and proteins that allow cancer to grow and survive. This type of treatment affects normal cells very little, while inhibiting the growth and spread of cancer.

8. Can Lung Cancer Be Detected at an Early Stage?

Today, with advances in imaging techniques such as low-dose spiral computed tomography, studies for detecting lung cancer at an early stage continue. Lung cancer can be successfully treated in the early stages.

Lung cancer can be effectively treated with early detection.

9. Does Nutrition Affect Lung Cancer Risk?

Many studies show that those who eat at least 5 servings of fruit and vegetables a day have a lower risk of lung cancer. It has also been observed that the risk of cancer is increased in those who take high doses of “beta carotene and vitamin A” and especially in smokers.

10. Can Lung Cancer Be Prevented?

Lung cancer is a preventable disease. The best and simplest way to prevent is not to smoke and to stay away from smoking environments. By quitting smoking, the risk begins to decrease, and after approximately 10 years, the risk of developing lung cancer decreases by 50%. Lung cancer can be prevented by taking necessary precautions to avoid exposure to occupational and environmental factors such as asbestos, radon gas, and air pollution.

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