Early diagnosis is vital in the treatment of prostate cancer.
Saying that the prostate has two main diseases, benign prostate enlargement and prostate cancer, Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty, Head of Urology Department Prof. Dr. Ahmet Erozenci, prostate cancer He answered the curious questions about the disease: “Of course, prostate infections can rarely occur, but the other diseases I have mentioned are much more important. With complaints such as enlargement of the benign prostate, difficult urination, waking up at night to urinate, that is, having to urinate by straining, it affects the quality of life not only of the patient but also of those living with it. As for cancer, it is a disease that threatens life expectancy, let alone affects quality of life if it spreads.”
Regardless of age, holding urine for a long time causes undesirable changes in the bladder muscle. In people who make a habit of keeping urine for a long time, complaints such as involuntary urination and urinary incontinence occur after a certain period of time, as the bladder muscle will gradually lose its contraction power.
Prostate cancer symptoms, early diagnosis and new treatment options
Prostate cancer and genetic factors
Stating that prostate cancer is one of the cancers with familial characteristics, Prof. Dr. Erözenci said, “When a man has prostate cancer in his first degree relative, the probability of developing cancer in that person increases 2-4 times higher than normal. For this reason, while examinations and tests for prostate cancer are usually performed at the age of 50, we follow people with a family history of prostate cancer from the age of 40. Our aim in these scans is that when the disease is diagnosed early, that is, only in the prostate, we have almost 100% chance of curing cancers that are caught in the organ-limited stage.”
Enlarged prostate and cancer
Stating that there is nothing that can be done to prevent prostate enlargement or prostate cancer, Prof. Dr. Erözenci said: “For a while, studies were conducted to determine whether tomatoes, beta carotenes, and some drugs have a role in preventing cancer. The results of these studies show that cancers diagnosed after using drugs for a certain period of time do not acquire an aggressive character. In other words, even if the use of drugs delays the diagnosis in a patient with cancer, the cancer is not common when the diagnosis is made. However, this is thought to be related to the natural behavior of prostate cancer rather than the drug used.
Prostate cancer and elevated PSA
Prostate cancer has several very interesting features. While prostate cancer is found in 40% of the autopsies of men who have died from other causes, the rate of diagnosis by biopsy due to an abnormality in the examination or high PSA is between 8-12%. So, quite a high number. Cancer continues to coexist with the patient without causing symptoms or death in a man.
Diagnosis is much easier with ‘smart biopsy’ method MR TRUS Fusion in prostate cancer
A second feature is that the incidence of prostate cancer increases with decades; It is seen in 40% in the 50-60 age group, 50% in the 60-70 age group, and thus an increasing number in every ten-year-old group. In other words, there is a 50% cancer detection rate when a biopsy is performed on a 65-year-old person with a normal physical examination and PSA level. It is said that if a man lives to 100 years old, he will be diagnosed with 100% prostate cancer. Based on these two data, we never try to catch all prostate cancers or diagnose all men with prostate cancer. Our aim is to detect cancers that increase PSA and that, if not diagnosed, can reduce the patient’s quality of life and even cause death.
Prostate cancer can spread to the pelvis at a very early stage
Emphasizing that prostate cancer is not a unique symptom, Prof. Dr. Erözenci said, “Usually, the diagnosis is made by biopsy performed due to an abnormality detected in the prostate examination or deviation from normal as a result of PSA. However, I would like to emphasize one point here: prostate cancer tends to spread to the pelvis at a very early stage. Especially in a man over the age of 50, when there is low back or leg pain that does not go away with painkillers, these complaints should definitely be examined for prostate examination and PSA control, instead of being explained by assumptions such as old age, muscle stiffness, or starting physical therapy immediately.
Treatment may vary according to the rate of spread of the disease.
Stating that the treatment determines the prevalence of the disease, Prof. Dr. Erözenci ended his speech with the following words: “To determine this, we scan the whole body with methods such as bone scintigraphy, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging after the diagnosis is made. If the disease is in the organ-limited stage, we have the opportunity to cure it with an operation called radical prostatectomy. In cases where it spreads outside the organ, we resort to methods such as radiation therapy or hormone therapy, depending on the degree of prevalence.
Annual PSA test against prostate cancer saves lives
After all this information, I think the point that should be emphasized is that every man over the age of 50 should have a PSA test, urinary tract ultrasound and examination at least once a year. Prostate cancer is a disease that can be cured by surgical intervention without the need for additional treatment when diagnosed early. It is the doctor’s responsibility to take the right approach when a male patient over the age of 50 comes to the examination. But going to the doctor without a complaint is also one’s own responsibility.”