Blood and burning in the urine, the first sign of bladder cancer
Bladder cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men after prostate cancer. Painful and bloody urine is the first sign of the disease in cancer, which is largely caused by cigarette consumption. Early diagnosis is of great importance bladder cancer Hisar Intercontinental Hospital Head of Urology Department Prof. Dr. We talked to Sinan Ekici.
Blood in the urine and burning is the first sign of the disease!
One of the most common findings in bladder cancer is painless bleeding in the urine. Bleeding in the urine is the first symptom in approximately 85% of patients. Bleeding is almost always intermittent or intermittent. Even if the patient does not have visible bleeding, microscopic bleeding can be detected in the urinalysis.
What is Bladder Cancer? Why does it happen? Symptoms and treatment
Complaints consisting of frequent urination, urgency and burning during urination are the second most common form of application. Other signs and symptoms of bladder cancer include low back pain due to obstruction in the urinary tract connecting the kidney to the bladder, swelling in the legs and a mass in the abdomen. Very rarely, patients may present with weight loss, abdominal pain or bone pain, which are symptoms of advanced disease at the time of admission.
Cancer risk increases with age
Although bladder cancer can be seen at any age, including childhood, it is usually a disease of middle and advanced age. The average age at diagnosis of bladder cancer is 69 for men and 71 for women. The rate of bladder cancer directly increases with age.
Although genetic factor is effective, environmental factor affects more
There are many risk factors for a person to get bladder cancer. At this point, genetic predisposition may play an important role. Those with a family history of bladder cancer are at greater risk. Environmental risk factors thought to have a role in the development and progression of bladder cancer;
- long-term smoking
- Occupational (industrial) exposure to chemicals (paint, textile, aluminum, leather, petroleum industries)
- Chronic parasitic, bacterial, fungal and viral infections
- Stones or foreign bodies in the bladder
- Treatment methods such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy
Smoking increases disease progression and risk of recurrence
Smoking is the most important known environmental risk factor for bladder cancer. The incidence of bladder cancer is 4 times higher in smokers than in non-smokers. The risk is proportional to the number of cigarettes smoked, the amount of time smoked, and the amount of smoke inhaled. Not quitting smoking after the diagnosis of bladder cancer worsens the clinical course and outcome in non-muscle bladder cancer in the initial stage.
Continuing to smoke also increases the risk of recurrence of the disease. As the number of cigarettes smoked increases, the aggressiveness of bladder cancer, which will occur, may increase its migration to muscle tissue, recurrence and progression. Cigarette consumption also reduces the effect of chemotherapy and BCG immunotherapy given into the bladder, which are used in the treatment of bladder cancer. In conclusion, quitting smoking when diagnosed with bladder cancer has an important role in the fight against the disease.
Diagnosis of the disease is determined by diagnostic methods
After detecting bleeding in the urine as a result of urinalysis, diagnostic findings are obtained by using radiological methods such as ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging. Urine cytology, which examines the cells in the urine, can give information about the degree of the disease, but this is not always sufficient for a definitive diagnosis.
Surgical intervention is a must for diagnosis and treatment!
If bladder cancer is suspected, cystoscopy should be performed at this stage. Cystoscopy is the process of examining the urinary tract and bladder by entering through the urethra with a telescope-like lighted instrument under anesthesia. When cancer or a formation suspicious for cancer is seen with cystoscopy, it is taken with a closed method called transurethral resection (TUR), which is suitable for biopsy and has cutting properties. The removed tissues are sent for pathological examination. In this way, both diagnosis and treatment are made. As a result of the pathologist’s evaluation, the definitive diagnosis of cancer and its characteristics are determined. The stage and grade of the cancer gives information about how fast the disease has the potential to progress.
Treatment is determined by the stage of the disease.
If the cancer has not passed into the muscle, the risk classification is made as low, medium and high risk and the treatment plan is determined accordingly. Additional treatment is administered in the form of chemotherapy or biological-inducing immunotherapy into the bladder. The aim of treatment in these patients is to stop the recurrence and progression of the disease. In order to determine the effectiveness of the treatment, it is necessary to perform a cystoscopy again after 3 months.