Attention to 3 cancer dangers waiting for women!
Gynecological cancers, namely female cancers, have an important place among the cancer cases seen worldwide. In the emergence of this dangerous disease group; lifestyle, genetic transition and some viruses play a role. However, good detection of risk factors, regular control and increased awareness bring early diagnosis and treatment success. Prof. from Memorial Şişli Hospital Gynecological Oncology Department. Dr. Yakup Kumtepe gave information about modern treatment approaches in women’s cancers.
4 out of 10 most common cancers occur in women
When women’s cancers are mentioned, the first thing that comes to mind is pregnancy-related trophoblastic disorders (placenta trophoblast abnormal proliferation of cells called cancer cells), preinvasive diseases of female cancers (pre-cancerous lesions), ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, cervical cancer, tube cancer, vagina and vulva cancer. These diseases have an important place among other cancers that occur in women. Because, among the 10 most common cancer types in the world and in our country, there are four diseases among female cancers. Gynecological cancers account for more than 10 percent of all cancers. It should not be forgotten that full recovery can be achieved in female cancers thanks to early diagnosis and correct treatment methods.
The incidence of cancer is increasing
As in all other cancers, an increase is observed in female cancers in our country. While 10 percent of the diseases that caused loss of life were cancer in 2002, this rate has increased to 20-22 percent according to the 2012 data of the Turkish Statistical Institute. If necessary precautions are not taken with a future-oriented perspective, it is predicted that one out of every two people will die of cancer towards the 2050s, with an increase after 2025.
The three most common female cancers in our country
Increased risk of cervical cancer in women who smoke
This disease, also known as cervical cancer, is the most common female cancer in the world. Approximately 540,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year. The HPV virus that causes cervical cancer is hidden in one part of the cells, just like the herpes virus. Over the years, by transforming the cells here, it can turn the normal cell type into atypical, that is, cancer cell. Especially those who get married at an early age, those who are polygamous or have a polygamous partner, and those who smoke one pack a day or more are at increased risk. There are about 100 different types of HPV that show genetic variation. 30-40 of these can be transmitted to humans through transmission.
The treatment of the disease is carried out in two ways. If the virus has not penetrated into the depth of the tissue, the area in the cervix can be determined by colposcopy. With the surgical removal of the area, the area that may become cancerous is eliminated, and a high rate of recovery is achieved in the patient. With a simple surgical procedure, the patient can be discharged on the same day. If the cancer has become invasive, that is, it has penetrated deep into the tissue, there are two treatment options. In this case, “radical hysterectomy”, which is an extensive and difficult operation that will take a long time, is performed. At the same time, because cancer cells occupy the lymph nodes in the pelvic area, they are also removed. The alternative is chemo-radiotherapy; The cancer cells in that area are sensitized to the light with chemotherapy drug, then radiotherapy is applied to the patient and the follow-up is continued. If it is in the late stage, survival rates are at a certain rate, regardless of surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
Obesity can invite uterine cancer
Obesity is of great importance in the emergence of this disease, which is also called endometrial or uterine cancer. Excess weight leads to estrogen, diabetes and hypertension, thus uterine cancer. About 25 percent of uterine cancers occur before menopause, and 5 percent under 40 years of age. The most important symptom of the disease is irregular bleeding. 3 out of 4 cases can be caught at an early stage.
If the disease is caught at an early stage, it can be successfully treated with a surgery called hysterectomy, which is based on removal of the uterus. If the patient is young and wants a child, fertility-preserving treatment is applied. First, the patient is treated with medication and the pregnancy is completed in a healthy way. Then the surgery is done. In advanced stages, the weight of the surgery and therefore the risks associated with it increase. After the surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are applied to the patients, with radiotherapy in the foreground.
Family history is important for ovarian cancer
The incidence of ovarian cancer peaks in the 60s. One of the most important reasons for the emergence of the disease is the decrease in fertility. Because giving birth protects a person from ovarian cancer. The disease, which is noticed at a later stage compared to uterine and cervical cancers, is caught in the advanced stage in 75 percent of the patients.
Pay attention to the symptoms of ovarian cancer!
15% of ovarian cancer occurs by genetic transmission. Especially women with gene mutations and familial cancer history should be checked by a physician every 6-12 months. In this way, the disease can be caught at an earlier stage and can be treated almost completely, as in other female cancers. In the treatment, not only the uterus and ovaries, but also all tissues that are likely to be retained in the body are removed. A positive response is obtained from chemotherapy applied after surgery.